What does it means drill a well?
A well is a vertical hole dug in the ground until the discovery of an aquifer, equipped to extract water from the same aquifer, and finally provided with the suitable pump for expected needs.
What constitutes a well?
On the aquifer, it is laid a filtering column and usually outside of this is created an artificial gravel drain. At the top of the drain a cementation is placed in the interspace between the tube and the hole walls.
On the surface, the well is isolated and made inspectionable.
What drilling method is adopted to make a well? And what kind of equipment are use?
The most developed and used method is the rotary drilling with direct circulation; others methods, such as reverse circulation or air circulation, are no more than variations of the above one. To find a water well drilling rig suitable for your task, please visit the water well drilling rigs developed by Massenza Rigs.
In this method, the action of perforation happens thanks to the rotary movement of the drilling bit, which is screwed to the lower end of the drill string formed from a number of rods.
The bit cuts and shatters the soil as it advances deep, giving rise to the formation of debris. The drilling fluid is pumped through the interior of the drill string and it goes out through the holes that are in the bit, with a certain speed to wash the bit itself and the bottom of the hole.
The fluid proceeds on its way back, along the space between the drill string and the walls of the well and bring the cuttings to the surface.
At the surface, the drilling fluid flows into a settling tank, where the debris can decant. The fluid is aspirated by a pump and be put again in circulation through the drill string.
Domestic or extra-domestic well?
It is only the final use of water that defines a well as domestic or extra-domestic.
It must be considered domestic when the water is used only for small needs of the owner or user (human consumption, watering of gardens, orchards or animals, etc).
A well can be named extra-domestic for uses such as recreational, industrial, agricultural irrigation, aqueduct, geothermal, etc.